Biogal’s e-News No. 1
Kfitz¬†the Dog: Vaccination vs. Immunization
By Ephraim Keren, VMD¬†¬†¬†
Biogal¬†thanks Dr. Sergey Wainstein, for¬†the following case report. Dr. Wainstein consulted with us on this case with regard to the interpretation¬†of the ImmunoComb¬ģ¬†test results that are shown below.
Kfitz, a 6-month-old female Am Staff terrier, presented¬†to the clinic with a 2-day history of “not feeling well”. She¬†was now vomiting and had bloody diarrhea, as well.
Dr. Wainstein suspected Parvovirus infection even though¬†Kfitz¬†had been vaccinated for this disease¬†7 weeks prior to the onset of the current illness. Both Dr. Wainstein¬†and¬†Kfitz‚Äôs owners were quite¬†interested in confirming the¬†diagnosis of¬†Kfitz‚Äôs illness, as well as pursuing the appropriate treatment.
A¬†number of diagnostic tests (below)¬†were performed on¬†Kfitz¬†to confirm the clinical diagnosis of canine Parvovirus infection.
|¬†(1)¬†¬†¬† Fecal Antigen||¬†Negative|
|¬†(2)¬†¬†¬† Complete Blood Count and¬†¬† Chemistry||¬†Leukopenia (WBC 8,300 / ul) No significant
|¬†(3)¬†¬†¬† ImmunoComb¬ģ¬†Serology for Parvovirus||¬†¬†Significant positive findings IgM¬†= S4,¬†¬†IgG = S6|
The vaccine manufacturer was not convinced of Dr. Wainstein‚Äôs diagnosis. The company said that the results of¬†Kfitz‚Äôs fecal antigen test and WBC count did not fit the required criteria to confirm Parvovirus infection. However, in light of the¬†ImmunoComb¬ģ¬†serology, the company could not rule out¬†this diagnosis.
We are happy to report that¬†Kfitz¬†responded well to Dr. Wainstein‚Äôs treatment and she recovered uneventfully. Dr. Wainstein and¬†Kfitz‚Äôs owners were pleased with the supporting role¬†that the¬†ImmunoComb¬ģ¬†tests¬†played in this case.
Editor‚Äôs comments:¬†The clinical diagnosis of parvovirus illness in this case was initially in doubt because the dog was previously vaccinated for Parvovirus and no viral antigen was detected in the feces at the time of illness. The serology findings of a very high IgG titer and high IgM titer, in particular, are characteristic of the immune response in clinically ill dogs rather than well dogs seven weeks following vaccination.¬† IgM levels typically decline by 4 weeks post-vaccination(1). Other cases of canine parvovirus with similar serologic findings as well as the absence of detectable viral antigen in the feces have been reported in the literature(2).
(1)¬† Waner, T., Mazar, S., Nachmias, E., Keren-Kornblatt, E. & Harrus, S. (2003). Evaluation of a dot ELISA kit for measuring immunoglobulin M antibodies to canine parvovirus and distemper virus.¬†The Veterinary Record,¬†10, 588-591.
(2)¬† Waner, T., Keren-Kornblatt, E., Shemesh, O & Mazar, S.¬† (2004). Diagnosis of acute canine parvovirus (CPV-2) in naturally infected dogs using serum IgM and IgG rapid dot ELISA.¬†Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine,¬†59 (1-2), 12-15.
We would like to remind you to follow the directions written on the yellow Notice card included with each ImmunoComb¬ģ¬†Antibody Test Kit. ¬† ¬†It is important to ‚Äėstir‚Äô the Comb twice during incubation in wells A, C, and F. This is accomplished by rapidly moving the Comb‚Äôs tooth/teeth up and down several times in the well.
Failure to perform this simple step will reduce the sensitivity of the test. Low positive antibody titer may not develop the proper intensity of grey and therefore be scored as negative.